Deviation of Frequency and Inertia with penetration of Renewable


  • Muhammad Adeel Khan CECOS University Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Irshad Ullah University of Technology, Nowshera, Pakistan
  • Azhar Qazi CECOS University Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Uzair CECOS University Peshawar, Pakistan
  • Syed Zeeshan Ahmad CECOS University Peshawar, Pakistan



Renewable Energy sources (RES), Frequency Restortion Reserves (FRR), Rate of change of frequency (ROCOF), Energy Storage System (ESS)


Inertia response is a function of bulky synchronous generators with large rotating rotor masses that cover the instantaneous difference between supply and grid demand, typically in power grids. The rotor rotation frequency helps speed up or slow down the rotor rotation due to the lack of adequate gap between the power supply and the electrical power demand. When demand increases or a fault occurs, or load fluctuations exceed the balance of supply and demand, grid inertia is always induced at this stage. This helps the automatic grid operator rebalance the system to avoid speed drifts, resulting in a relatively small change in AC frequency over the system's frequency range. But the system consists of a system with low or zero inertia, like the wind, it lacks the effect of inertia and could not gain equilibrium. So, to balance and to reach the target frequency; the frequency deviation of the system due to the lack of inertia of the wind turbine is improved by the droop control technique in this research because the wind system reduced the total inertia of the system. Droop rate control mode for AC generator techniques was used to control the frequency fluctuations due to the lack of inertia of the renewable energy system. A synchronous generator connected to the mains was used as the governor control mode. It works by controlling power generation using the mains frequency of the prime mover. This mode allows synchronous generators to run in parallel and share the loads with the same drooping technique in proportion to their rated output. Injected grid inertia increased generator inertia on large power grids.




How to Cite

Khan, M. A., Irshad Ullah, Azhar Qazi, Uzair , M., & Ahmad , S. Z. (2023). Deviation of Frequency and Inertia with penetration of Renewable. Journal of Applied Engineering & Technology (JAET), 7(1), 22–36.

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